LPIC Level 1 combines two exams as I mentioned in previous posts, this is the second exam that you must pass inorder to be Linux certified.
Exam 102 covers topics such as System Architecture, Package Management (dpkg,rpm), Kernel and Module manipulation, Compiling a custom kernel, text editing and Printing (with LPR), Basic knowledge in Shell scripting (if,then,else,break case and more), X Windows system, Networking Fundamentals ( Which includes some TCP/IP basics and networking related tools ( traceroute,dig,route,dhcpd ), Networking services such as inet and xinet, NFS, basic knowledge in apache configuration files, of course, detailing about each and every topic is way out of the scope for this post, but I will try and collect all the important commands and subjects i came across with at my exam.
Please notice, these are highlights only, there are many things you need to know, this is just an overview on some of them and I’ve collected things I came across with during the tests! this isn’t enough to get prepared.
System Architecture: I came across questions regarding the interrupts of serial and parallel ports. pay close attention to IRQ numbers for the possible devices, also, try to explore some regarding the 1024 cylinder limitations and how it works out with Lilo (actually, it doesn’t work properly – it must be installed below that limit).
Linux installation and Package management: you should be familiar with the hierarchy of the top level directories and how to plan an installation of an operating system, the advantages of giving some of them a partition for themselves, such as the /var directory and size for swap partition compared to the HDD. a good & planned installation architecture will simply give you better performance and will make your life much easier if you find yourself in a position where you need to troubleshoot your system.
An important subject is knowing the extracting and compressing tools such as tar and gzip. you will need to know the options available for each of them, also, get to know how to compile software from source with configure and make. and their order.
Another very important and common subject ( Notice! there WILL be at least 3-4 questions about it ) is the rpm and dpkg commands with their options, try to suit yourself a good way of remembering them because they might be a just a wee bit confusing at first, but they really aren’t.
Reconfiguring, building and installing custom kernel, there will be at least 2 questions about how it’s done, sometimes in the form of “What is the order of customizing a new kernel” with given commands.
Printing: get to know how to handle print queues with lpc,lpq, also ,lpr,lprm will be involved in the questions.
Shell Scripting: in my opinion, the best way to understand bash is to just take a look at pre-made examples of simple bash scripts, get to know the if then else , and some looping, there will be at least 1 question about it, notice : you are not asked to script something yourself, it’s a matter of knowing if the command is going to work according to the given code or maybe to type in the missing syntax. get to know the /etc/profile /etc/bashrc and the users .profile .bashrc .bash_login files, and how changing them affect users.
X server: X display manager is necessary to understand, termination of X applications and customizing a windows manager environment. get to know gdm kdm and xdm. in addition, X Fonts is also necessary to get familiar with. (X fonts topic has been dropped from the exams and it is only necessary to be aware of it)
Networking: TCP/IP, that’s how I sum it up, know the differences between UDP and TCP, port numbers, some ip addressing and Classes, converting from an ip to binary WILL show up on the exam (that’s at least what happened to me anyway).
troubleshooting network problems with ping/traceroute/dig/nslookup. get to know the available tools out there. also setting up an ethernet card with the command line (with ifconfig) is required.
NFS – /etc/exports is the file you need to read some about, how to get your files shared across a network, be sure you to install the required packages;
apt-get install nfs-kernel-server
apt-get install nfs-common
the ports you need to open for it are 2049 and 111.
DNS – Very important, there are few files you need to be aware of, /etc/hosts , /etc/nsswitch.conf , /etc/resolv.conf and each one of them does something unique of its own, there will be at least 2 questions about those files and how the syntax should look like in each of them. for example:
in /etc/resolv.conf, it’s necessary to know that a DNS server will look like this:
Security: services over the system must have some defense, the more running services the easier it is to compromise your system, TCP Wrappers /hosts.allow /hosts.deny, tcpd logging are all things that should look close to familiar before you decide to take the exam, some SSH security configuration is also good for your knowledge not to mention good for your own computer if your computer serves you remotely (FTP,ssh,telnet,home based domain)